Society of Jesus, The Company of Jesus, The Company
Year of origin 1540 Papal bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae ("To the Government of the Church Militant")
Founder Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Borja
Headquarters Church of the Gesù, Rome
Head of Organization Superior General
Current Leader Adolfo Nicolás
Members 19,200 (2012)
The Society of Jesus (abbreviated as S.J.), also known as the "Jesuits", is a male Christian religious Order of the Catholic Church founded on August 15, 1534 and first recognized by Papal Bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae on September 27, 1540. Restrictions on the Order were not removed until March 14th 1543 through Papal Bull Injunctum nobis.
The Jesuits were founded initially as The Company of Jesus on "Assumption Day" August 15, 1534, also being the traditional feast day for Lucifer since 70CE, in a secret ceremony in the crypt of the Chapel of St. Denis by Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola) and Francisco Xavier, Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, and Nicolás Bobadilla all from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy in France, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal.
The formation was approved by Francis Borja, of the infamous "Borja" also known as Borgia/Borga, Duke of Grandia, grandson of Pope Alexander VI and the patron of Ignatius of Loyola. Francis Borja was the principle financier and architect in the formalization of the Jesuits into the first dedicated military order of monks of the Catholic Church. He was also responsible for securing the Papal Bull Regimini militantis (September 27, 1540) from Borja family friend Alessandro Farnese Pope Paul III which first gave the Jesuits official status as an order.
Ignatius of Loyola first came to the attention of the young Duke of Grandia by 1529 after Ignatius was again arrested by the Inquisition for practicing extreme religious devotion. Borja saw potential in the extreme military based devotion being preached by Ignatius of Loyola and his desire to establish an order of military monks. It was the young Borja who saved the life of Ignatius from the Inquisition.
At the death of Ignatius in 1557, Francis Borja was expected to be the second Superior General. However, his ambitions were hampered firstly by arch-enemy Giovanni Pietro Carafa as Pope Paul IV (1555-1559). Carafa had been one of the greatest enemies of Borja Pope Alexander VI and immediately nominated Diego Laynez (James Lainez) as Superior General.
Pope Paul IV died in August of 1559 and was replaced by Giovanni Angelo de' Medici (Pope Pius IV). In both cases, Jesuit Superior General Diego Laynez aligned himself closely making him virtually untouchable.
However, after Pope Pius IV rounded up and tortured and murdered Benedetto Accolti and other members of Papal families in an alleged failed plot, Cardinal Borja made his move and Pius IV was poisoned to death on December 9, 1565. A few days later, Superior General Diego Laynez suffered the same fate and soon after Cardinal Francis Borja was unanimously elected the third Superior General.
Unique features of the Jesuit Military Order
Borja strengthened the already substantial powers of the Jesuit Superior General to be greater than any other Order in the history of the Catholic Church.
While technically monks, the Constitution of the Order was unique in that it exempted priests from the cloisted rule (i.e. living in monasteries). Instead, Jesuit monks were to live "in the world". Only the Dominican Priests who were the chief torturers of the Inquisition and the Catholic Church at the time had anything like such freedoms.
However, the Jesuit Constitution from the very beginning went even further in that it permitted and even encouraged the priests not to wear the habit (traditional monk dress) so that they would "blend in" to the world.
Borja secured a Papal Bull from Pope Paul III in 1545 permitting the Jesuits to preach, hear confession, dispense the sacraments and say mass without having to refer to a bishop- effectively placing them outside the control of the regional clergy.
In addition, Borja amended the Constitution of the Jesuit Military Order even further when he bestowed powers to the office of the Superior General of the Jesuits second only to the Pope. By its own constitution from 1565 (and which remains in force even today), the Superior General can absolve priests and new recruits of all their sins, even the sin of heresy and schism, the falsification of apostolic writings. Further, the Superior Generals from the time of Borja onwards had the "official" power by Papal Bull and its by-laws to reverse sentences of excommunication, suspension or interdict and even absolve Jesuit priests guilty of murder and bigamy.
But one of the most stunning victories of Superior General Borja was in the year he died, when he secured under Pope Gregory XIII in 1572 the rights of the Jesuits to deal in commerce and banking - a right that had not been granted to any religious order of the Catholic Church since the Knights Templars four hundred years earlier.
In fact, it is these laws under the Constitution of the Jesuit Order that have rise to the Superior General being known as the Black Pope.
The Jesuits and Education
In October 1538, Roman Pontiff Paul II (III) (1534-1549) issued the Papal Bull calling upon the Roman Catholic Church to become principally a “teaching” institution to the world, while also reconstituting the Dominican Friars. The Jesuits were then granted the English Hospice as their first seminary and education college in history as the Collegium Anglicus or College of English. The College was reconstituted in 1579 as the Pontifico Collegio Inglese (Pontifical College of English);
In February 1551, prior to the recommencement of the second period of the Council of Trent (1551-52), Roman Pontiff Julius II (III) (1550-1555) ceded the Collegium Romanum (“Roman College”) to the control of the Company of Gesu (Jesuits) and Ignatius of Loyola as Superior General (1541-1556) granting its headquarters at the base of Capitoline Hill:
(i) From 1556, the Collegium Romanum (“Roman College”) was also known as the Università Roma or “University of Rome” under the control of the Superior-General of the Company of Gesu (Jesuits); and
(ii) From 1584, the Collegium Romanum (“Roman College”) was also known as the Pontificia Università Gregoriana or “Great Pontifical Universe” under the control of the most senior Rector of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits); and
(iii) Within the “great universe”, a series of “colleges” were either formed or re-constituted for most major languages and regions of peoples from 1579 including English (1579 reconstituted), German and Hungarian(1580 reconstituted), Greek (1579), Polish (1583), Scottish (1601), Irish (1628), Belgian (1844), French (1853), South America (1858), North America (1859), Croatian (1863), Armenian (1885), Canadian (1887), Nepomuceno (Czech) (1888), Spanish (1892), Marionite (1893), Portuguese (1901),Brazil (1934), Filipino (1961) and Ethiopian (2005).
These restructurings effectives shifted the teaching control or "Magisterium" of the Catholic Church to the Jesuits, as opposed to operational control. Thus, the real power within the Jesuit Order has remained the Rectors as opposed to the Provincials in terms of teaching, knowledge and counsel.
Using their unheralded powers, the Jesuits established a counter education movement to the Protestants, using their priceless access to the secret Vatican archives, the Jesuits dedicated themselves to manipulating every major stream of science and philosophy against the Protestant intellectuals, including subverting their secret societies.
The recruitment and promotion of Education had a secondary benefit for the Jesuits in that it ensured higher calibre recruits and made their services more attractive across the Catholic world. The Jesuits quickly became known as the Order dedicated to education excellence in Catholic countries, a perverse notion considering their original purpose for existence and structure was military.
The Jesuits and Early Trade
Another area where the Jesuits sought to compete against the Protestant states early was in the securing of lucrative trade routes. Thanks to Pope Gregory XIII, the Jesuits were the only religious Order with the power to conduct commerce and banking.
Jesuit Superior General Claudio Acquaviva (1581 - 1615 ) soon put this to good use when in 1580, he ordered Fr Vilela S.J. to purchase of the port of Nagasaki from a local Japanese warlord. General Acquaviva then sent Alessandro Valignano S.J. back to manage the new commercial mission.
The Jesuits promoted heavily the growth of their wholly owned port of Nagasaki, to one of the most profitable trading ports in the world. Jesuit ownership of the port of Nagasaki gave the Society a concrete monopoly in taxation over all imported goods coming into Japan.
The Jesuits under Peter Claver S.J. were also instrumental in the development of the slave trade from Africa to South America to be used in the gold mines. Up to half a million slaves were shipped and arrived under the watch of Peter Claver S. J. Later, the Jesuits transformed Claver from one history's worst slave masters to the patron saint of slaves, Colunbia and African Americans.
However, both Spain and Portugal in particular were angry at the increasing wealth and influence of the Jesuits encroaching on their profits from the slaves and monopolization of trade.
In response to the Portuguese seeking to restrict the Jesuits in Japan by arming their enemies, General Claudio Acquaviva formed an alliance in 1595 with the Dutch in supporting their merchant ships and trade. In response to the new alliance, the English Parliament issued a charter granting a monopoly on the pirate trade alliance of the East India Company in 1600.
In 1602, General Claudio Acquaviva assisted the Jesuit merchants to gain a 21 year charter of monopoly from the States-General of the Netherlands to form the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, literally "United East Indies Company ( Dutch East India Company).
Using the exclusive powers of the Jesuits to conduct banking and commerce, the Dutch East India Company represented one of the most profitable companies of history thanks to its control of spices, slaves, drugs and plantations. The Jesuits only lost control in 1773 at the disbandment of the Order.
The Jesuit suppression
While the initial argument of the Jesuits to its involvement in trade was to corrupt and hamper the activities of Protestant trade, in reality it was Catholic nations who were most upset. Added to the Jesuit woes was the increasing danger to the Order from its duties as chief assassins. Every time a new King or Queen died under their watch, the noble families of Europe became more agitated.
But it was the Jesuit control of education and suppression of liberalism that was to lead to their disbandment. While Protestant nations lept ahead in commerce, industry and education, the Catholic states continued to lose control. Spain, Portugal, the states of Italy and even France had all watched with indignity while England, Germany, Russia and the other Northern European states had grown in wealth and prestige.
In 1758 the minister of Joseph I of Portugal (1750–77), the Marquis of Pombal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal, and shipped them en masse to Civitavecchia, as a "gift for the Pope." In 1764, King Louis XV of France expelled the Jesuits.
By 1769, the movement to expel the Jesuits had grown in such momentum that there was a real risk the Papal Estates might also be taken. Pope Clement XIII called for a consistory in order to disband the Jesuits, including the preparation of a Papal Bull for the pronouncement. But on February 2, 1769 the night before the Bull to disband the Jesuits was due to be promulgated, General Lorenzo Ricci had the Pope murdered.
His successor, Pope Clement XIV, himself trained by the Jesuits, was more strategic. In July 1773, Pope Clement XIV signed the order Dominus ac Redemptor to disband the Jesuits and their churches and assets were seized in simultaneous raids. In exchange, Pope Clement was given back Avignon and Benevento to the Papal states for "services rendered" to the Royal houses.
The suppression took General Ricci completely by surprise but before he could retaliate, he was arrested on August 17 and imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome. But on September 22, 1774 Ricci successfully had Pope Clement XIV assassinated at the age of 68. Ricci remained imprisoned and died there on November 24, 1775 after 15 years as General.
While the seizure of property, execution of priests and suppression of the Order took effect, the legal effect was negligible. Contrary, to historic claims, a Papal Bull cannot contradict a previous Papal Bull unless the previous Bull was clearly defective. Almost all of the Papal Bulls forming the Jesuits and granting power were "water tight". So the orders of Pope Clement XIV simply had the effect of brute force, with no legal effect as to the primary of the Jesuits themselves.
The counter-attack of the Jesuits
The imprisonment and death Ricci and the Letter of Suppression did not bring the desired end of the Jesuits. The Letter was valid only in those countries where it was officially promulgated.
Frederick of Prussia recognizing the value of the Jesuits as educators refused to promulgate the Brief. So, too, Catherine II of Russia forbade its promulgation for the some of the same reasons. At first, some Jesuits became parish priests and continued to teach in the Jesuit Colleges as before.
Since they were recognized legally as Jesuits in those two countries, the Fathers in White Russia called a General Congregation—The First in White Russia. They elected as Vicar General the 53-year-old Father Stanislaus Czerniewicz. He was a leading Jesuit of the Province and was Rector at the College at Polotsk.
Stanislaus Czerniewicz died on July 7, 1785 and the Fathers called the Second Congregation of White Russia to elect a successor. They elected as Vicar General Father Gabriel Lenkiewicz on September 27.
Two years after his election, Gabriel Lenkiewicz S.J. seized an opportunity to inflict revenge upon one of the Royal houses of Europe that contributed to the downfall of the Jesuits. Reform minded King Louis XVI of France had convened an Assembly of Notables - a group of some nobles, bourgeoisie, and bureaucrats selected in order to bypass the Parliament, dominated by the noble families.
In order to improve the standard of living for the poorest of France and halt growing hunger, the King sought the approval of the Assembly to his plan to tax Noble families and the Catholic Church for the first time. The plan outraged the Catholic Bishops and the Jesuits were called in from Russia to provide assistance on how to subvert the good King's plans.
The Jesuits quickly exploited the King's plan to by-pass the thoroughly corrupt Parliament and began printing pamphlets and anti-Monarch material stating the King was actually working against the common people, because by law one third (The Third Estate) of French Parliament were elected from the common people.
Again exploiting the reform minded King's desire to see change work, the Jesuits promoted open riots and a counter movement, claiming it was really the people who wanted change, not the King. To end the chaos, in 1791, King Louis XVI promulgated a new Constitution in which France would function as a constitutional monarchy - providing real political freedom and democracy for the first time for any mainland European nation.
In response, Pope Pius VI (1775-1799) ordered Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II of Austria to attack his brother in law. By 1792, the Jesuit controlled Jacobites had captured the King and for the following two years during the Jesuit "reign of terror" over 40,000 people were executed, mostly without even a trial.
The revolution itself did not at first advance the cause of the Jesuits to see their reinstatement. Instead, it gave renewed confidence to their ability to topple even the oldest of monarchies and so gave rise to the audacious plan to capture the Pope and the wealth of the Catholic Church.
In one of the great misdirections and forgeries of history, loyal Jesuit agent Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette known simply to most as "La Fayette" did not simply abandon his loyal troops and influence to hide in the obscure Belgium region of Liège where he was conveniently held "prisoner" for 5 years. Instead, La Fayette was tasked by the Jesuits to take the vast gold reserves of France to America.
In New York, the stolen French gold was placed in the care of the Bank of New York (founded 1784) and the newly formed Bank of the Manhattan Company (now JP Morgan Chase Bank).
Jesuit agent Antoine Christophe Saliceti had carefully groomed the career of fellow Corsican Napoleon Bonaparte for several years. In 1795, whilst serving in Paris, Napoleon succeeded in crushing a rebellion of royalists and counter-revolutionaries and was promoted by the new regime leader Paul François Jean Nicolas, vicomte de Barras (Paul Barras).
After his marriage to Josephine de Beauharnais, Saliceti ensured Napoleon was given command of the French Army of Italy in March 1796 and ordered to invade Italy, specifically to capture the Pope in Rome.
At the same time, the Jesuits through Switzerland formed the private banks Darier Hentsch & Cie and Lombard Odier Darier Hentsch as custodians for all gold, treasure and contracts seized during the campaign.
However, Pope Pius VI arranged his own peace treaty with Napoleon as Tolentino on February 19, 1797. It took the Jesuits arranging the murder of French brigadier-general Mathurin-Léonard Duphot in Rome, to get Napoleon to finally complete the task of arresting the Pope. Six weeks after the Pope’s transfer to the poor conditions of the citadel of Valence, he died on August 29, 1799.
Back in Rome, the Jesuit agents of Superior General Gabriel Lenkiewicz S.J. reviewed all the treasury notes of the Vatican as to the various locations of Vatican gold and treasure, sending it to Switzerland and Darier Hentsch & Cie Bank. In turn, the bank continued for a time to fund Napoleon for his continued campaigns of conquest.
In November 1798, Gabriel Lenkiewicz S.J. died and on February 1 Father Franz Xavier Kareu was elected Vicar General.
Re-establishment and new military orders of Jesuits
At the death of Pius VI in August 1799 as a French prisoner, Cardinal Count Barnaba Chiaramonti was eventually elected as Pope Pius VII on March 14, 1800. While initially on acceptable terms with Napoleon having secured a Concordant in 1801 and attending his coronation in 1804. However, by 1808, he was a prisoner of France, not by Jesuit intrigue but by Napoleon now running his own race.
After the disasterous Russian campaign had sufficiently weakened the power of Napoleon, Jesuit leader Tadeusz Brzozowski (first Superior General after restoration) met with Pope Pius VII at his prison in Jan/Feb 1814 and secured an agreement with Pope Pius VII to fully restore the Jesuit Order and grant it new lands and rights in Asia upon the agreement: (1) That the Jesuits would arrange for the safe release of the Pope upon the arrest of Napoleon (which occurred in April 1814); (2) That the Jesuits would not undertake anymore actions against any more Popes and restate their pledge of loyalty; (3) That the Pope get back control of the Papal territories and (4) That some of the funds of the Catholic church controlled by the Vatican would be returned.
Subsequently, the Society was restored to the world by the Papal letter "Solicitudine Omnium Ecclesiarum" on August 14, 1814.
In 1941 aged 75, Count Wladimir Ledochowski -- Jesuit Superior General --was at the height of his supremecy, a still fit and completely driven man. His army of Jesuit influentials had similarly reached great heights in all places held by Catholic Dictators as well as the United States. So why would a civil war between factions of the Jesuits break out at such a time?
One of the great historical anomalies is the behaviour of both Adolf Hitler, Fr Himmler S.J. and Fr Joseph Stalin S.J. in the Nazi Russian Invasion. Contrary to spin historians, these men had not only shown ruthless pragmatism in managing power until this point, but were actively working together on a number of military and scientific fronts until the invasion.
A frequent excuse given is that fiercly Catholic Hitler had become “drunk” with power and decided to invade Russia because he hated the Russians. But Hitler was a mere soldier, compared to Fr. Himmler S.J. the new Grand Inquisitor of the Roman Catholic Church and his massive army of assassins and torturers.
Instead, it is much more certain that Jesuit Superior General Ledochowski instructed Himmler to push for the assault on the understanding this would complete a clean sweep of Catholic National Socialism over Catholic National Communism. Similarly, it is clear that Count Ledochowski said something in reverse to Fr Stalin S.J. – that this was the plan that would ultimately destroy Germany as Stalin’s behaviour against his own country and people was nothing other than treacherous.
When Hitler invaded in June 1941, Fr Stalin -- against every other example of ruthless judgment to protect his own power -- seemingly invited for his troops to be slaughtered and defeated by refusing his generals to fully engage, then having the generals executed and then repeating the bizarre process almost up to Moscow.
However, by the bleak Russian winter of December 1941, the jaws of the Jesuit Soviet Machine clamped down shut on the legs of the German Army. From this point on, the fate of the Nazi dream and power were sealed.
For such a loyal German Jesuit as Fr Himmler S.J. such deliberate trickery by Ledochowski would have been devastating and unforgivable. The Jesuits had shifted their power away from Germany, France and Italy to America -- for the first time in the order's history.
On December 13, 1942 (aged 76) Count Wladimir Ledochowski died suddenly --almost certainly murdered by the very best assassins of Fr. Himmler for his treachery in dooming the German-Swiss –French “Illuminati” Jesuits.
Technically this act immediately plunged the Jesuits into Civil War. Unable to convene a General Congregation until the end of the War --when all Jesuits have permission to elect their leader --Vicar General Norbert de Boyne could not be made Superior General. This left the American Jesuits, led by Fr Edmund Walsh S.J. free to pursue their agenda along with other international factions.
The German-Swiss-Italian-French Jesuits during the war headed by Fr Heinrich Himmler S.J. represented the “Illuminati” – the old guard who had been betrayed by their slain leader Fr Ledochowski S.J. The other camp representing the new guard, the “New World Order” headed by the American-Canadian Jesuits and allies along with English and even Australian Jesuits.
Midst the two warring camps of Jesuits were "neutral" provinces such as the Netherlands and Spain, still battling for its survival against the popularity of the Vatican sponsored Opus Dei Mary (Mari) Spanish Satanic devotion cult.
By 1946, after the end of World War II, the two warring sides of Jesuits in Europe and the Americas finally arranged 5to elect a new Superior-General in Belgium borne Jean Baptiste Janssens (1946-1964). Following the death of Jean Baptiste Janssens, the divisions in philosophy and approaches between Jesuits of North America versus Europe continued to widen.
The American Jesuits became the leading scholars in promoting revised Nihilist philosophies attacking not only traditionbal spiritualism, but degrading the level of competence in a wide variety of academic disciplines in the deliberate "dumbing down" of the world. Nihilism through the mass packaging of American Culture by American Jesuits not only helped maintain the dominance of America as a superpower, but ensured they remained dominant against their bitter rivals in Europe.
In 1965, Pedro Arrupe SJ was elected the next Superior General (1965-1983) of the Jesuits midst the continuing decline in numbers and academic standards of the Order as Nihilist philosophies took their toll. Then in 1972, a partial truce was formulated in the creation of the office of President of Jesuit Conference of the United States and an accompanying office of President of Jesuit Conference of European Provincials. Now the warring factions had a means by which to communicate on "equal terms". A truce was finally achieved.
Upon the death of Pedro Arrupe SJ in 1983, the Dutch born Peter Hans Kolvenbach was elected Superior General (1983-2008) until his decision to resign in 2008.
By 2008, the Jesuit Order, especially in the United States was a shell of its former brilliance. Over populated by blissfully nihilistic, barely competent, arrogant and undisciplined recruits, the once dominant United States faction had slid to a terminal point of complete irrelevance. It was at this time that Peter Hans Kolvenbach chose to resign from the office of Superior General to become a "visitor" - a role focused on the revival of the spiritual dimension of the Order.
The election of Pope Francis on March 14th 2013, the traditional "Day of Blood" and ancient birthday of Mithra represents a further historic turning point for the Jesuits and the Catholic Church in a rejection of the insanity of nihilism and the potential implementation of promised reforms of Vatican II and focus on personal responsibility.
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